Addresses are used to send and receive cryptocurrency transactions on the network. An address is usually a long, unique string of alphanumeric characters that acts as an email address (looking something like this 1MhN5qfH1vgx9CLL17i3DK9D2gzrHR7dZF). These public keys are either privately held wallets or exchange platform addresses


Any coin in the crypto-market that is not Bitcoin. Some altcoins created on a derivative of Bitcoin’s original, open-source protocol with some changes to the underlying code. Thus creating an entirely new coin with its own set of features. Some examples of these Bitcoin-derived altcoins are Bitcoin Cash (BCH), Monero (XMR) and Litecoin (LTC)Other altcoins do not use the original protocol from Bitcoin but have created new protocols around a similar idea that supports their native currency. Examples of these include Ripple (XRP) and Ethereum (ETH)



Original and most widely known and utilised cryptocurrency created by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008.


A publicly shared database that stores transaction records. Otherwise known as Decentralised Ledger Technology (some purists believe it can only be blockchain when applied to Bitcoin). Blockchain consists of “blocks” of transaction information that typically contain transaction logs, a cryptographic hash linking it to the previous block, and a timestamp. Each time a block is created and added to the chain, it is then distributed across the whole network of nodes for confirmation of validity. Once the block is added to the chain, it is then fixed and irreversible. The network of nodes works by consensus, the network collectively adheres to the protocol for validating new blocks, and a majority is required for transaction completion. Retroactive alterations are not possible without the alteration of all subsequent blocks, which would require the agreement of the network majority.


The length of the blockchain. The number of blocks created on the chain after the genesis block.


The reward a miner receives for creating a block on the chain. It is how miners gain their coins. It is also how currency is created as there needs to be a reward for the miners not linked to the transactions.



The total number of coins that are circulating in the market and available for spending or trading.


The digital mean of payment in the blockchain ecosystem. The purpose of the coin is to act like money: to store value and pay for goods or services. Sometimes the terms “coins” and “tokens” are used interchangeably. Strictly speaking, there is a difference: generally, tokens have the greater range of functions and attributes.


Storing cryptocurrency ‘offline’, as a way of safekeeping your cryptocurrency from hacking.



(also see Blockchain) Some Purists believe that “Blockchain” can only be used in the context of Bitcoin or at the very least in blockchain projects directly linked to the financial industry.


The same single digital token can be sent successfully sent to two different recipients simultaneously. It is as if the same dollar bill could be spent twice. This is a problem unique to digital currencies because digital information can be duplicated or falsified easily. Double-spending was a concern initially with Bitcoin since it is a decentralised currency with no central agency to verify that it is spent only once. However, Bitcoin has a mechanism based on transaction logs – the Blockchain – to verify the authenticity of each transaction and prevent double-counting.



ERC20 is the technical standard for smart contracts on the Ethereum Blockchain. The majority of tokens issued on the Ethereum blockchain are ERC20 compliant. [2] The fact that most tokens created on the Ethereum blockchain are ERC20 tokens is to allow for portability across blockchains, and they are not trapped on a native blockchain.


Currently #2 in the cryptocurrency rankings and not as a derivative of the Bitcoin blockchain. Ethereum has a completely separate open sourced blockchain protocol which allows for smart contracts and is aimed at solving issues associated with censorship, fraud and third-party interference.



Fiat currency is created and backed by governments and not by any underlying asset (as it was previously under the gold standard)


A fork is a permanent divergence from the original blockchain protocol. Forks come into existence when a 51% or hackers’ attack occurs, a bug in the program happens, or, more commonly, a new set of consensus rules come into existence. These can be Hard Forks or Soft Forks


The moment that Ethereum surpasses Bitcoin in total market cap.



The first block in a new blockchain, the genesis block is a special case in that it does not reference a previous block. It will always have a block height of 0 (zero)



A Hard fork occurs when there is a significant change to the blockchain protocol. Changes to the protocol require that all nodes upgrade to the new version of the blockchain. If enough users fail to comply with the upgrade, then a hard fork creates a new cryptocurrency.


Hash is a mathematical process which takes a sequence of letters of various length and returns a different sequence of fixed length. In Bitcoin block creation the hash is used to enter new verified transactions into the blockchain.


The hard cap is the total issuance of a coin that will be created, thus the maximum amount that an ICO will be raising. This amount is fixed and specified before an ICO is launched. The coin distribution can never exceed this amount, and if an ICO reaches its hard cap, they will stop collecting any more funds.


A meme that emerged from the Bitcoin Talk forum. It has permeated crypto terminology since. HODL is just a typo for “Hold”, but it has also taken on the meaning of “Hold On for Dear Life”.



An Initial Coin Offering is a digital fundraising mechanism in which companies issue and sell their own crypto tokens in exchange for Bitcoin, Ether or even fiat currency. Initially, ICOs were used as a means of crowdfunding for blockchain projects, innovative technology start-ups, and non-profits.



The total dollar market value of a coin’s circulating supply.


Mining is the process through which new coins are created, and transactions are verified and added to the blockchain. Anyone with access to the internet and a suitably powerful mining rig (computer) can mine. Mining involves compiling recent transactions into blocks and trying to solve a puzzle. The participant who first solves the puzzle gets to place the next block on the blockchain and claim the rewards. Mining is possible only on cryptocurrencies that follow the Proof of Work protocol. Miners create the network of distributed nodes. Mining is essentially being paid to host the blockchain and become part of the decentralised network that makes the blockchain so secure.


In the world of cryptocurrencies, Mooning refers to a price going up to an astronomical level, or ‘moon-high’.



A measure to prevent denial of service attacks and achieve distributed consensus on a cryptocurrency blockchain by requiring ownership of a certain amount of cryptocurrency.


A measure to prevent denial of service attacks and achieve distributed consensus on a cryptocurrency blockchain by requiring a defined example of work from a service requestor.



Named in honour of the creator of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto, a Satoshi is the smallest amount of Bitcoin that can be bought or traded (1 satoshi = 0.00000001 BTC)


Smart contracts encode business rules in a programmable language onto the blockchain and are enforced by the participants of the network.

SHILL (noun & verb)

Someone who over-hypes and talks-up a cryptocurrency that is (quite often) a scam. To shill is over-hyping a (questionable) coin or token in many cases for profit, where in-kind or another form of benefit.



In some cases “token” and “coin” are used interchangeably. However, tokens have far more functionality attributed to them. The defining difference between a token and a coin is that tokens function on top of an existing blockchain that facilitates the creation of decentralised applications while coins are separate currencies which have their own blockchain ecosystem. Another major difference between coins and tokens is their functionality. Coins are meant to be currency, i.e. they are for storing value, paying for goods etc. Tokens can represent the value gained from investing in a project. That is they could represent rights of ownership, voting, profit-sharing, product usage and can perhaps be treated as securities (depending on country of legislation).


This is the total amount of cryptocurrency traded within a specific period (usually one day, one week, etc.)


TAOs appear to be the way that ICOs will go in 2018, following the increased contribution of blockchain technologies to capital formation and the increase in regulatory framework creation. TAOs have many similar features to standard equity offerings. They can also have real assets or intellectual property rights attached. For the future of token offerings, TAO’s will be classified as securities and will be regulated accordingly depending on the country of legislation.



Wallets can be hot/cold, hard/paper. A wallet is where your cryptocurrency is stored. Hot Wallet – stored in software on a device and is connected to the internet Cold wallet – an offline wallet on a device not linked to the internet. Hard wallet – a piece of hardware, like a flash drive that is encrypted so that only the owner can access it. Paper Wallet – a paper printout of a hot wallet QR code and usually stored in a safety deposit box. Used primarily for long-term storage.


A cryptocurrency investor that holds and trades enough cryptocurrency to affect the crypto markets noticeably. Usually someone (or corporate entity) that can trade millions of dollars of cryptocurrency at any one time.

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